Herb Formulas Notebook


474 Individual Herbs & Substances


Herb List Formula List Drilldown Search

This page is contains my notes on individual herbs and substances. The majority are Chinese but it also includes other common herbs that I have collated from various sources. Patients are often taking various things and it is necessary to understand how they may be interacting with the treatment we are doing.

It is designed to assist research into traditional formulae and describe the effects of food, diet and lifestyle from a traditional perspective. It is not a tool for self diagnosis or treatment for which a qualified professional should be sought. Some of the substances may be unsuitable for use today due to toxicity, legal reasons or scarcity, in which case the actions and indications are designed to assist find a suitable replacement or understand what effect they may have if encountered in a patient's history.


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Aromatic Herbs that Transform Dampness

Bai Dou Kou 白蔻仁 (Fructus Amomi Rotundus / Round Cardamom)

Cang Zhu 苍术 (Rhizoma Atractylodis / Black Atractylodis)

Cao Dou Kou 草豆蔻 (Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai / Katsumada's Galangal Seeds)

Cao Guo 草果 (Fructus Tsaoko / Cochin Cardamon Fruit)

Hou Po 厚朴 (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis / Magnolia Bark)

Huo Xiang 藿香 (Herba Pogostemonis / Patchouli)

Pei Lan 佩蘭 (Herba Eupatorii fortunei / Fragrant Thoroughwort)

Sha Ren 砂仁 (Fructus Amomi / Cardamom)

Sha Ren Ke 砂仁壳 (Pericarpium Amomi / Cardamom Shell)


Aromatic Substances that Open the Orifices

An Xi Xiang 安息香 (Benzoinum / Benzoin)

Bing Pian 冰片 (Borneolum / Borneol Camphor)

Niu Huang 牛黄 (Calculus Bovis / Ox Gallstone)

She Xiang 麝香 (Moschus / Musk)

Shi Chang Pu 石菖蒲 (Rhizoma Acori tatarinowii / Sweetflag Rhizome)

Su He Xiang 苏合香 (Resina Liquidambar orientalis / Styrax)


Downward Draining Herbs

Ba Dou 巴豆 (Fructus Crotonis / Croton Fruit)

Da Huang 大黄 (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei / Rhubarb Root and Rhizome)

Gan Sui 甘遂 (Radix Euphorbia Kansui / Sweet Spurge Root)

Hong Da Ji 紅大戟 (Radix Knoxiae / Knoxia Root)

Huo Ma Ren 火麻仁 (Semen Cannabis / Cannabis Seed)

Lu Hui 蘆薈 (Aloe barbadensis seu ferox / Concentrated Aloe Juice)

Mang Xiao 芒硝 (Natrii Sulfas / Glauber's Salt)

Qian Niu Zi 牵牛子 (Semen Pharbitidis / Morning Glory Seeds)

Yu Li Ren 郁李仁 (Semen Pruni / Bush Cherry Pit)

Yuan Hua 芫花 (Flos Genkwa / Daphne Genkwa Flower)


Herbs that Clear Heat

Bai Fan 白礬 (Alumen / Alum)

Bai Hua She She Cao 白花蛇舌草 (Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae / Oldenlandia)

Bai Jiang Cao 敗醬草 (Herba Patriniae / Patrinia)

Bai Lian 白蔹 (Radix Ampelopsis / Japanese Ampelopsis Root)

Bai Tou Weng 白头翁 (Radix Pulsatillae Chinensis / Pulsatilla Root)

Bai Wei 白薇 (Radix Cynanchi Atrati / Blackened Swallow Wort Root)

Bai Xian Pi 白鲜皮 (Cortex Dictamni / Chinese Dittany Root Bark)

Ban Lan Gen 板蓝根 (Radix Isatidis / Indigo Woad Root)

Bian Dou 扁豆 (Semen Lablab Album / White Hyacinth Bean)

Bian Dou Hua 扁豆花 (Flos Dolichoris / Hyacinth Bean Flower)

Chong Lou 重楼 (Rhizoma Paridis / Paris Rhizome)

Da Qing Yan 大青鹽 (Halitum / Halite)

Da Qing Ye 大青葉 (Folium Isatidis / Indigo Leaf)

Dan Zhu Ye 淡竹叶 (Herba Lophatheri / Bamboo Leaves and Stem)

Di Er Cao 地耳草 (Herba Hyperici Japonici / Japanese St. John's Wort)

Di Gu Pi 地骨皮 (Cortex Lycii / Wolfberry Root Bark)

Guan Ye Lian Qiao 貫葉連翹 (Hypericum perforatum / St. John's Wort)

Han Shui Shi 寒水石 (Glauberitum / Red Gypsum)

He Ye 荷叶 (Nelumbinis Foliae / Lotus Leaf)

Hei Dou 黑豆 (Semen Sojae nigrum / Black Soy Bean)

Hong Jing Tian 紅景天 (Radix Rhodiolae Crenulate / Rhodiola Root)

Hu Huang Lian 胡黃連 (Rhizoma Picrorhizae Kurroa / Katki)

Huang Bai 黄柏 (Cortex Phellodendri / Amur Corktree Bark)

Huang Lian 黄连 (Rhizoma Coptidis / Coptis Rhizome)

Huang Qin 黄芩 (Radix Scutellariae / Baical Skullcap Root)

Jin Yin Hua 金银花 (Flos Lonicerae / Honeysuckle Flower)

Jue Ming Zi 决明子 (Semen Cassiae / Cassia Seeds)

Ku Shen 苦参 (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis / Shrubby Sophora Root)

Lian Geng 荷梗 (Nelumbinis Caulis / Lotus Stem)

Lian Qiao 连翘 (Fructus Forsythiae / Weeping Forsythia Capsule)

Lian Zi Xin 莲子心 (Plumula Nelumbinis / Lotus Plumule)

Long Dan Cao 龍膽草 (Radix Gentianae / Chinese Gentian Root)

Lu Cha 绿茶 (Camelliae Sinensis / Green Tea)

Lu Dou 綠豆 (Vigna radiata / Mung Bean)

Lu Gen 芦根 (Rhizoma Phragmitis / Reed Rhizome)

Ma Bo 马勃 (Lasiosphaera seu Calvatia / Puffball)

Mu Dan Pi 牡丹皮 (Cortex Moutan / Tree Peony Root Bark)

Ning Meng 檸檬 (Citrus limon / Lemon)

Ou (Radix nelumbinis / Lotus Root)

Pu Gong Ying 蒲公英 (Herba Taraxaci / Dandelion)

Qin Pi 秦皮 (Cortex Fraxini / Korean Ash Bark)

Qing Dai 青黛 (Indigo Naturalis / Natural Indigo)

Qing Hao 青蒿 (Herba Artemisiae Annuae / Sweet Wormwood)

Ren Dong Teng 忍冬藤 (Caulis Lonicerae / Honeysuckle Stem)

Shan Ci Gu 山慈菇 (Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones seu Rhizoma Iphigeniae Indicae / Hardy Chinese Orchid Bulb)

She Gan 射幹 (Rhizoma Belamcandae / Blackberry Lily Rhizome)

Sheng Di Huang 生地黃 (Radix Rehmanniae / Chinese Foxglove Root)

Shi Gao 石膏 (Gypsum Fibrosum / Gypsum)

Shui Fei Ji 水飛薊 (Silybi marianus fructus / Milk Thistle Seed)

Shui Niu Jiao 水牛角 (Cornu Bubali / Water Buffalo Horn)

Si Gua Luo 絲瓜絡 (Retinervus Luffae Fructus / Loofah)

Si Gua Ye 絲瓜葉 (Luffae Folium / Luffa Leaf)

Tian Hua Fen 天花粉 (Radix Trichosanthis / Snakegourd Root)

Tian Kui Zi 天葵子 (Radix Semiaquilegiae / Semiaquilegia Root)

Tu Fu Ling 土茯苓 (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae / Greenbiars Rhizome)

Wan Nian Qing 萬年青 (Rohdea Japonica / Japanese Sacred Lily)

Xi Gua 西瓜 (Pulpa Citrulli / Watermelon Fruit)

Xi Gua Shuang 西瓜霜 (Mirabilitum Praeparatum / Prepared Mirabilite)

Xia Ku Cao 夏枯草 (Spica Prunellae / Self-heal Spike)

Xiao Bai Ju 小白菊 (Tanaceti parthenii herba / Feverfew)

Xuan Ming Fen 玄明粉 (Mirabilitum Depuratum / Weathered Sodium Sulfate)

Xuan Shen 玄參 (Radix Scrophulariae / Chinese Figwort Root)

Xue Li 雪梨 (Pyrus pyrifolia / Asian Pear)

Xun Yi Cao 薰衣草 (Herba Lavandula / Lavender)

Ye Ju Hua 野菊花 (Flos Chrysanthemi Indici / Wild Chrysanthemum Flower)

Ye Ming Sha 夜明砂 (Faeces Vespertilionis / Bat Faeces)

Ye Zi Jiang 椰子漿 (Cocos nucifera succus / Coconut water)

Yin Chai Hu 银柴胡 (Radix Stellariae / Starwort)

Yu Xing Cao 魚腥草 (Herba Houttuynia cordata / Chameleon Plant)

Zhi Mu 知母 (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae / Anemarrhena Rhizome)

Zhi Zi 栀子 (Fructus Gardeniae / Gardenia Fruit)

Zi Cao 紫草 (Radix Lithospermi seu Arnebiae / Purple Gromwell Root)

Zi Hua Di Ding 紫花地丁 (Herba Violae / Violet)


Herbs that Dispel Wind-Dampness

Can Sha 蚕沙 (Faeces Bombycis / Silkworm Faeces)

Du Huo 独活 (Radix Angelicae Pubescentis / Pubescent Angelica Root)

Hai Feng Teng 海风藤 (Caulis Piperis Kadsurae / Kadsura Pepper Stem)

Hai Tong Pi 海桐皮 (Cortex Erythrinae / Coral-Bean Bark)

Luo Le 羅勒 (Herba Ocimi / Sweet Basil)

Luo Shi Teng 絡石藤 (Caulis Trachelospermi / Star Jasmine Stem)

Mu Gua 木瓜 (Fructus Chaenomelis / Chinese Quince Fruit)

Qin Jiao 秦艽 (Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae / Large-leaf Gentian Root)

Sang Ji Sheng 桑寄生 (Herba Taxilli / Mulberry Mistletoe Stems)

Sang Zhi 桑枝 (Ramulus Mori / Mulberry Twig)

Shen Jin Cao 伸筋草 (Herba Lycopodii / Clubmoss)

Shi Nan Ye 石楠叶 (Folium Photiniae / Chinese Photinia Leaf)

Song Jie 松节 (Lignum Pini Nodi / Knotty Pine Wood)

Song Mu Gen 楤木根 (Radix Araliae Chinensis / Chinese Angelica Tree)

Song Ye 松葉 (Folium Pini / Pine Leaves)

Tou Gu Cao 透骨草 (Herba Speranskiae Tuberculatae / Garden Balsam Stem)

Wei Ling Xian 威灵仙 (Radix Clematidis Chinensis / Chinese Clematis Root)

Wu Jia Pi 五加皮 (Cortex Acanthopanacis / Acanthopanacis Bark)

Wu Shao She 烏梢蛇 (Zaocys / Garter Snake)

Xiang Jia Pi 香加皮 (Cortex Periplocae / Chinese Silkvine Root Bark)

Xu Chang Qing 徐长卿 (Radix Cynanchi Paniculati / Paniculate Swallowwort Root)

Zhu Sha Gen 朱砂根 (Radix Ardisiae Crenatae / Coral Ardisia Root)


Herbs that Drain Dampness

Ban Bian Lian 半边莲 (Herba Lobeliae Chinensis / Chinese Lobelia Herb)

Bi Xie 萆薢 (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae / Fish Poison Yam Rhizome)

Bian Xu 萹蓄 (Herba Polygoni Avicularis / Knotweed)

Che Qian Zi 车前子 (Semen Plantaginis / Plantago Seeds)

Chi Fu Ling 赤茯苓 (Poria rubrae / Red Poria Fungus)

Chi Xiao Dou 赤小豆 (Vigna angularis / Adzuki Bean)

Deng Xin Cao 灯心草 (Medulla Junci / Bulrush Pith)

Di Fu Zi 地肤子 (Fructus Kochiae / Belvedere Fruit)

Dong Gua Zi 冬瓜子 (Semen Benincasae / Winter Melon Seed)

Dong Kui Guo 冬葵果 (Fructus Malvae / Musk Mallow Seeds)

Fang Ji 防己 (Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae / Stephania Root)

Fu Ling 茯苓 (Poria / Hoelen)

Fu Ling Pi 茯苓皮 (Sclerotii Poriae Cocos / Poria Peel)

Fu Shen 茯神 (Scierotium Pararadicis Poriae Cocos / Poria Spirit)

Guang Jin Qian Cao 广金钱草 (Herba Desmodii Styracifolii / Gold Coin Grass)

Hai Jin Sha 海金沙 (Spora Lygodii / Japanese Climbing Fern Spore)

Hua Shi 滑石 (Talcum / Talcum Powder)

Jin Qian Cao 金錢草 (Herba Lysimachiae / Gold-coin Grass)

Mu Tong 木通 (Caulis Akebiae seu Caulis Clematis / Akebia or Clematis Stem)

Qu Mai 瞿麦 (Herba Dianthi / Fringed Pink Dianthus)

Shi Wei 石韦 (Folium Pyrrosiae / Felt Fern Leaf)

Tong Cao 通草 (Medulla Tetrapanax Papyriferus / Rice Paper Plant Pith)

Yi Yi Ren 薏苡仁 (Semen Coicis / Chinese Pearl Barley)

Yin Chen Hao 茵陈蒿 (Herba Artemisiae Scopariae / Virgate Wormwood Herb)

Ze Xie 泽泻 (Rhizoma Alismatis / Water Plantain Rhizome)

Zhi Ju Zi 枳椇子 (Semen Hoveniae / Raisin Seed)

Zhu Ling 猪苓 (Polyporus Sclerotium / Griffolia)


Herbs that Expel Parasites

Bing Lang 槟榔 (Areca Seed / Betel Nut)

Chang Shan 常山 (Radix Dichroae / Feverflower Root)

Da Suan 大蒜 (Allium sativum / Garlic)

He Shi 鹤虱 (Fructus Carpesii Abrotinoidis / Carpesium Fruit)

Ku Lian Pi 苦楝皮 (Cortex Meliae azedarach / Chinaberry Bark)

Lang Du 狼毒 (Radix Alocasia seu Euphorbiae (Ebracteolatae seu Fischerianae) / Spurge Root)

Lei Wan 雷丸 (Omphalia / Thunderball Fungus)

Shi Jun Zi 使君子 (Fructus Quisqualis / Rangoon Creeper Fruit)

Wu Yi 芜荑 (Praeparatio Fructus Ulmi Macrocarpae / Paste of Stinking Elm Fruit)


Herbs that Regulate Qi

A Wei 阿魏 (Resina Ferulae / Asafoetida)

Chen Pi 陈皮 (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae / Aged Tangerine Peel)

Chen Xiang 沉香 (Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum / Aquilaria Wood)

Chuan Lian Zi 川楝子 (Fructus Toosendan / Sichuan Pagoda Tree Fruit)

Da Fu Pi 大腹皮 (Pericarpium Arecae / Betel Husk)

Fo Shou 佛手 (Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis / Buddha's Hand)

Hu Sui 胡荽 (Herba Coriandri Sativi / Coriander)

Ju Bai 橘白 (Endocarpium Citri Tangerinae / White Tangerine Endocarp)

Ju He 橘核 (Semen Citri Reticulatae / Tangerine Seed)

Ju Hong 橘红 (Exocarpium Citri Rubrum / Outermost Red Tangerine Peel)

Ju Pi 橘皮 (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae / Tangerine Peel)

Ju Ye 橘叶 (Citri Foliae / Tangerine Leaf)

Ka Fei 咖啡 (Fructus Coffea / Coffee Bean)

Li Zhi 梨树 (Ramulus Pyri / Asian Pear)

Li Zhi He 荔枝核 (Semen Litchi / Lychee Seed)

Luo Bo 萝卜 (Raphanus sativus / Daikon Radish)

Mei Gui Hua 玫瑰花 (Flos Rosae Rugosae / Rose Flower)

Mi Die Xiang 迷迭香 (Rosmarini folium / Rosemary Leaf)

Mu Xiang 木香 (Radix Aucklandiae / Costus Root)

Pi Jiu Hua 啤酒花 (Flos Humuli Lupuli / European Hop Flower)

Qing Mu Xiang 青木香 (Radix Aristolochiae / Slender Dutchmanspipe Root)

Qing Pi 青皮 (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride / Unripe Tangerine Peel)

Shi Di 柿蒂 (Calyx Kaki / Persimmon Calyx)

Tan Xiang 檀香 (Lignum Santali Albi / Sandalwood)

Wu Yao 乌药 (Radix Linderae / Lindera Root)

Xiang Fu 香附 (Rhizoma Cyperi / Nut-Grass Rhizome)

Xie Bai 薤白 (Bulbus Allii Macrostemi / Chinese Garlic)

Zhi Ke 枳壳 (Fructus Aurantii / Bitter Orange)

Zhi Shi 枳实 (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus / Immature Bitter Orange)

Zi Su Geng 紫苏梗 (Caulis Perillae / Perilla Stem)


Herbs that Regulate the Blood

Ai Ye 艾叶 (Folium Artemisiae Argyi / Mugwort Leaf)

Bai Ji 白芨 (Rhizoma Bletillae / Urn Orchid Rhizome)

Bai Mao Gen 白茅根 (Rhizoma Imperatae / Wooly Grass Rhizome)

Bai Shi Zhi 白石脂 (Halloysitum Album / Kaolinite)

Ce Bai Ye 侧柏叶 (Cacumen Platycladi / Oriental Arborvitae Tip)

Chi Shao 赤芍 (Radix Paeoniae Rubra / Red Peony Root)

Chong Wei Zi 茺蔚子 (Fructus Leonuri / Asian Motherwort Seed)

Chuan Niu Xi 川牛膝 (Radix Cyathulae / Hookweed Root)

Chuan Xiong 川芎 (Rhizoma Ligusticum Chuanxiong / Sichuan Lovage Rhizome)

Cu (Acetum / Vinegar)

Da Ji 大薊 (Herba seu Radix Cirsii Japonici / Japanese Thistle)

Dan Shen 丹参 (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae / Red Sage Root)

Di Yu 地榆 (Radix Sanguisorbae / Garden Burnet Root)

E Zhu 莪术 (Curcuma Zedoariae / Zedoary Root)

Fu Rong Ye 芙蓉叶 (Folium Hibisci Mutabilis / Hibiscus Leaf)

Hong Hua 红花 (Flos Carthami / Safflower)

Hu Zhang 虎杖 (Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati / Japanese Knotweed)

Huai Hua 槐花 (Flos Sophorae Immaturus / Pagodatree Flower Bud)

Huai Jiao 槐角 (Fructus Sophorae / Pagodatree Pod)

Ji Xue Teng 鸡血藤 (Caulis Spatholobi / Millettia Root and Vine)

Jiang Huang 姜黄 (Rhizoma Curcumae Longae / Turmeric Rhizome)

Juan Bai 卷柏 (Herba Selaginellae / Tamariskoid Spikemoss Herb)

Liang Mian Zhen 两面针 (Radix Zanthoxyli Nitidum / Shiny-leaf Prickly Ash Root)

Lu Lu Tong 路路通 (Fructus Liquidamberis / Sweetgum Fruit)

Ma Bian Cao 馬鞭草 (Herba Verbenae / Vervain)

Mao Dong Qing 毛冬青 (Radix Ilicis Pubescentis / Wintergreen Root)

Meng Chong 虻虫 (Tabanus / Horsefly)

Mo Yao 没药 (Resina Commiphorae / Myrrh)

Niu Xi 牛膝 (Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae / Ox Knee Root)

Ou Jie 藕节 (Nodus Nelumbinis Rhizomatis / Lotus Rhizome Node)

Pu Huang 蒲黄 (Pollen Typhae / Cattail Pollen)

Qian Cao Gen 茜草根 (Radix Rubiae / Indian Madder Root)

Ru Xiang 乳香 (Olibanum / Frankincense)

San Leng 三棱 (Rhizoma Sparganii / Burr-Reed Rhizome)

San Qi 三七 (Radix Notoginseng / Pseudoginseng Root)

Shui Zhi 水蛭 (Hirudo / Leech)

Su Mu 苏木 (Lignum Sappan / Sappan Wood)

Tao Ren 桃仁 (Semen Persicae / Peach Seed)

Tu Bie Chong 土鳖虫 (Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga / Woodlouse)

Wang Bu Liu Xing 王不留行 (Semen Vaccariae / Cowherb Seed)

Wu Ling Zhi 五灵脂 (Faeces Trogopterori / Flying Squirrel Feces)

Xi Shu 喜树 (Fructus et Cortex Camptothecae / Cancer Tree Fruit and Bark)

Xian He Cao 仙鹤草 (Herba Agrimoniae / Agrimony)

Xiao Ji 小蓟 (Herba Cirsii seu Cephalanoplos / Field Thistle)

Xue Jie 血竭 (Sanguis Draconis / Dragon's Blood)

Xue Yu Tan 血余炭 (Crinis Carbonisatus / Charred Human Hair)

Yan Hu Suo 延胡索 (Rhizoma Corydalis / Corydalis Rhizome)

Yi Mu Cao 益母草 (Herba Leonuri / Chinese Motherwort)

Yu Jin 郁金 (Radix Curcumae / Turmeric Tuber)

Zao Xin Tu 竈心土 (Terra Flava Usta / Furnace Soil)

Ze Lan 泽兰 (Herba Lycopi / Bugleweed)

Zi Jing Pi 紫荆皮 (Cortex Kadsurae Radicis / Chinese Redbud Bark)

Zi Ran Tong 自然铜 (Pyritum / Pyrite)


Herbs that Release the Exterior

Bai Zhi 白芷 (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae / Dahurian Angelica Root)

Bo He 薄荷 (Herba Menthae / Field Mint)

Cang Er Zi 苍耳子 (Fructus Xanthii / Cocklebur Fruit)

Chai Hu 柴胡 (Radix Bupleuri / Hare's Ear Root)

Chan Tui 蝉蜕 (Periostracum Cicadae / Cicada Moulting)

Cong Bai 葱白 (Bulbus Allii / Spring Onion)

Da Dou Huang Juan 大豆黄卷 (Semen Sojae Germinatum / Bean Sprout)

Dan Dou Chi 淡豆豉 (Semen Sojae Preparatum / Fermented Soybean)

Fang Feng 防风 (Radix Saposhnikoviae seu Ledebouriellae / Siler)

Gao Ben 藁本 (Radices Ligustici Sinensis / Straw Weed)

Ge Gen 葛根 (Radix Puerariae / Kudzu Vine Root)

Ge Hua 葛花 (Flos Puerariae / Flower of Kudzuvine)

Gui Zhi 桂枝 (Ramulus Cinnamomi / Cinnamon Twig)

Jing Jie 荆芥 (Herba Schizonepetae / Japanese Catnip)

Ju Hua 菊花 (Flos Chrysanthemi / Chrysanthemum)

Ma Huang 麻黄 (Herba Ephedrae / Ephedra Stem)

Man Jing Zi 蔓荆子 (Fructus Viticis / Vitex Fruit)

Niu Bang Gen 牛蒡根 (Radix Arctii / Burdock Root)

Niu Bang Zi 牛蒡子 (Fructus Arctii / Burdock Seed)

Qiang Huo 羌活 (Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii / Notopterygium Root and Rhizome)

Sang Ye 桑叶 (Folium Mori / Mulberry Leaf)

She Xiang Cao 麝香草 (Thymus Vulgaris / Thyme)

Sheng Jiang 生姜 (Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens / Fresh Ginger)

Sheng Jiang Pi 生姜皮 (Exocarpium Zingiberis Recentis / Ginger Peel)

Sheng Ma 升麻 (Rhizoma Cimicifugae / Black Cohosh)

Shu Wei Cao 鼠尾草 (Salvia officinalis folium / Common Sage Leaf)

Song Guo Ju 松果菊 (Echinaceae radix / Echinacea)

Xi Xin 细辛 (Herba cum Radix Asari / Chinese Wild Ginger)

Xiang Mao 香茅 (Herba Cymbopogon citratus / Lemongrass)

Xiang Ru 香薷 (Herba Moslae seu Elscholtsiae / Aromatic Madder)

Xin Yi Hua 辛夷花 (Flos Magnoliae / Magnolia Flower Bud)

Yuan Sui Zi 芫荽子 (Fructus Coriandri / Coriander Seed)

Zi Su Ye 紫苏叶 (Folium Perillae / Perilla Leaf)


Herbs that Relieve Food Stagnation

Ji Nei Jin 鸡内金 (Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli / Chicken Gizzard)

Lai Fu Zi 莱菔子 (Semen Raphani / Radish Seed)

Mai Ya 麦芽 (Fructus Hordei Germinatus / Malt Barley Sprouts)

Shan Zha 山楂 (Fructus Crataegi / Hawthorn Fruit)

Shen Qu 神曲 (Massa Fermentata / Medicated Leaven)

Shu Mi 黍米 (Fructus Panici Miliacei / Broomcorn Millet)


Herbs that Stabilize and Bind

Bai Guo 白果 (Semen Ginkgonis Bilobae / Ginkgo Seed)

Chi Shi Zhi 赤石脂 (Halloysitum Rubrum / Red Kaolin)

Chun Pi 椿皮 (Cortex Ailanthi / Tree of Heaven Bark)

Fu Pen Zi 覆盆子 (Fructus Rubi / Chinese Raspberry)

Fu Xiao Mai 浮小麦 (Fructus Tritici levis / Unripe Wheat Grain)

Hai Piao Xiao 烏賊骨 (Os Sepiae / Cuttlefish Bone)

He Zi 诃子 (Fructus Chebulae / Myrobalan Fruit)

Jin Ying Zi 金櫻子 (Fructus Rosae Laevigatae / Cherokee Rose Hip)

Lian Xu #34030;須 (Stamen Nelumbinis / Lotus Stem)

Lian Zi 莲子 (Semen Nelumbinis / Lotus Seed)

Ma Huang Gen 麻黄根 (Radix Ephedrae / Ephedra Root)

Nuo Dao Gen Xu 糯稻根须 (Radix Oryzae Glutinosae / Root of Glutinous Rice)

Qian Shi 芡实 (Semen Euryales / Fox Nut)

Rou Dou Kou 肉豆蔻 (Semen Myristicae / Nutmeg)

Sang Piao Xiao 桑螵蛸 (Ootheca Mantidis / Praying Mantis Egg-Case)

Shan Zhu Yu 山茱萸 (Fructus Corni / Dogwood Fruit)

Wu Mei 乌梅 (Fructus Mume / Black Plum)

Wu Wei Zi 五味子 (Fructus Schisandrae / Schisandra Fruit)

Xiao Mai 小麥 (Fructus Tritici levis / Wheat Grain)

Yu Yu Liang 禹余粮 (Limonitum / Limonite)


Herbs that Tonify Qi

Bai Zhu 白术 (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae / Largehead Atracylodes Rhizome)

Bing Tang 冰糖 (Crystalli Saccharo / Crystal Sugar)

Ci Wu Jia 刺五加 (Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi / Siberian Ginseng)

Da Zao 大枣 (Fructus Jujubae / Jujube Berry)

Dang Shen 党参 (Radix Codonopsis / Bonnet Bellflower Root)

Gan Cao 甘草 (Radix Glycyrrhizae / Licorice Root)

Gan Cao Shao 甘草梢 (Apex Radicis Glycyrrhizae / Licorice Root Tips)

Huang Jing 黄精 (Rhizoma Polygonati / Solomon's Seal Rhizome)

Huang Qi 黄芪 (Radix Astragali / Astragalus Root)

Ji Rou 雞肉 (Caro Pullus / Chicken Meat)

Jing Mi 粳米 (Semen Oryzae / Non-Glutinous Rice Seed)

Ke Teng Zi 榼藤子 (Semen Entadae / Entada phaseoloides)

Nan Fei Zui Jia 南非醉茄 (Radix Withania somnifera / Ashwagandha)

Nuo Mi 糯米 (Semen Oryzae Glutinosae / Glutinous Rice)

Pu Tao 葡萄 (Vitis vinifera / Grape)

Qian Jin Ba 千斤拔 (Radix Flemingiae Philippinensis / Philippine Flemingia Root)

Ren Shen 人参 (Radix Panax Ginseng / Ginseng Root)

Shan Yao 山药 (Rhizoma Dioscoreae / Chinese Yam)

Su You 酥油 (Butyrum / Ghee)

Yang Rou 羊肉 (Caro Ovilla / Lamb)

Ye Zi Rang 椰子瓤 (Cocos nucifera albumen / Coconut albumen)

Yi Tang 饴糖 (Maltosum / Maltose)


Herbs that Tonify Yang

Ba Ji Tian 巴戟天 (Radix Morindae Officinalis / Indian Mulberry Root)

Bu Gu Zhi 补骨脂 (Fructus Psoraleae / Psoraliae Fruit)

Cong Zi 蔥子 (Semen Allii Fistulosi / Onion Seed)

Dong Chong Xia Cao 冬蟲夏草 (Cordyceps / Chinese Caterpillar Fungus)

Du Zhong 杜仲 (Cortex Eucommiae / Eucommia Bark)

Gou Ji 狗脊 (Rhizoma Cibotii / Chain Fern Rhizome)

Gu Sui Bu 骨碎补 (Rhizoma Drynariae / Boneknit Rhizome)

Hu Lu Ba 葫蘆巴 (Semen Trigonellae / Fenugreek Seed)

Hu Tao Ren 胡桃仁 (Semen Juglandis / Walnut)

Lu Rong 鹿茸 (Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum / Deer Antler Velvet)

Nan Zhu Zi 南燭子 (Vaccinium myrtillus / Asiatic Bilberry)

Rou Cong Rong 肉苁蓉 (Herba Cistanches / Broomrape Stem)

Sha Yuan Zi 沙苑子 (Semen Astragali Complanati / Flattened Milkvetch Seed)

Suo Yang 鎖陽 (Herba Cynomorii coccineum / Maltese Mushroom)

Tu Si Zi 菟丝子 (Semen Cuscutae / Chinese Dodder Seeds)

Xian Mao 仙茅 (Rhizoma Curculiginis / Golden-Eye Grass Rhizome)

Xu Duan 续断 (Radix Dipsaci / Himalayan Teasel Root)

Yi Zhi Ren 益智仁 (Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae / Black Cardamom)

Yin Yang Huo 淫羊藿 (Herba Epimedii / Horny Goat Weed)


Herbs that Tonify Yin

Bai He 百合 (Bulbus Lilii / Lily Bulb)

Bie Jia 鳖甲 (Carapax Trionycis / Soft Turtle Shell)

Chi Yu Shu Pi 赤榆皮 (Cortex Ulmus rubra / Slippery Elm Bark)

Chu Shi Zi 楮实子 (Fructus Broussonetiae / Paper Mulberry Fruit)

Gui Ban 龟板 (Carapax et Plastrum Testudinis / Fresh-Water Turtle Plastron)

Gui Ban Jiao 龟板胶 (Colla Carapacis et Plastri Testudinis / Turtle Plastron Glue)

Hai Shen 海参 (Trepang / Sea Cucumber)

Han Lian Cao 旱蓮草 (Herba Ecliptae / Eclipta)

Hei Zhi Ma 黑芝麻 (Semen Sesame Nigrum / Black Sesame Seed)

Ji Zi Huang 鸡子黄 (Galli Gigeriae Vitellus / Egg Yolk)

Li Pi 梨皮 (Pericarpium Pyrus pyrifolia / Pear Skin)

Mai Men Dong 麥門冬 (Radix Ophiopogonis / Dwarf Lilyturf Root)

Nan Sha Shen 南沙参 (Radix Adenophorae / Ladybell Root)

Nu Zhen Zi 女貞子 (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi / Glossy Privet Fruit)

Sha Shen 沙参 (Radix Adenophorae / Ladybell Root)

Shi Hu 石斛 (Herba Dendrobii / Stonebushel Stem)

Song Zi Ren 松子仁 (Semen Pinus / Pine Nut)

Tian Men Dong 天門冬 (Radix Asparagi / Asparagus Root)

Xi Yang Shen 西洋參 (Radix Panacis Quinquefolii / American Ginseng)

Yu Zhu 玉竹 (Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati / Fragrant Solomon's Seal Root)

Zhu Zhi Gao 猪脂膏 (Lardum / Lard)

Zi He Che 紫河车 (Placenta Hominis / Placenta)


Herbs that Tonify Blood

Bai Shao 白芍 (Radix Paeoniae Alba / White Peony Root)

Dang Gui 当归 (Radix Angelicae Sinensis / Chinese Angelica Root)

E Jiao 阿胶 (Colla Corii Asini / Donkey-Hide Gelatin)

Gou Qi Zi 枸杞子 (Fructus Lycii / Goji Berries)

He Shou Wu 何首乌 (Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata / Fleeceflower Root)

Long Yan Rou 龙眼肉 (Arillus Longan / Longan Fruit)

Lu Jiao Jiao 鹿角胶 (Colla Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum / Deer Antler Glue)

Sang Shen 桑椹 (Fructus Mori / Mulberry Fruit)

Shao Yao 芍药 (Radix Paeoniae / Peony Root)

Shu Di Huang 熟地黄 (Radix Rehmanniae Preparata / Prepared Chinese Foxglove Root)


Herbs that Transform Phlegm

An Ye 桉葉 (Folium Eucalypti / Eucalyptus Leaf)

Bai Bu 百部 (Radix Stemonae / Stemona Root)

Bai Fu Zi 白附子 (Rhizoma Typhonii / Giant Typhonium Rhizome)

Bai Jie Zi 白芥子 (Semen brassicae / Mustard Seed)

Bai Qian 白前 (Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii / Prime White Rhizome)

Ban Xia 半夏 (Rhizoma Pinelliae / Pinellia Rhizome)

Bei Mu 貝母 (Bulbus Fritillariae / Fritillaria Bulb)

Bi Qi 荸薺 (Eleocharis dulcis / Water Chestnut)

Chuan Bei Mu 川贝母 (Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae / Fritillaria Bulb)

Dan Nan Xing 胆南星 (Arisaema Cum Bile / Bile prepared Jack-in-the-Pulpit Rhizome)

Gua Di 瓜蒂 (Pedicellus Melo / Melon Pedicle)

Gua Lou 瓜蒌 (Fructus Trichosanthis / Snakegourd Fruit)

Gua Lou Pi 瓜蒌皮 (Pericarpium Trichosanthis / Snakegourd Fruit Peel)

Gua Lou Ren 瓜蔞仁 (Semen Trichosanthis / Snakegourd Seed)

Hai Dai 海带 (Saccharina japonica / Kelp)

Hai Zao 海藻 (Sargassum / Seaweed)

Jie Geng 桔梗 (Radix Platycodi / Balloon Flower Root)

Kuan Dong Hua 款冬花 (Flos Farfarae / Coltsfoot Flower)

Kun Bu 昆布 (Thallus Eckloniae / Kelp)

Li Lu 藜蘆 (Radix et Rhizoma Veratri / Black False Hellebore)

Meng Shi 礞石 (Lapis Mica seu Chloriti / Lapis Stone)

Pang Da Hai 胖大海 (Semen Sterculiae Lychnophorae / Malva Nut)

Pi Pa Ye 枇杷叶 (Folium Eriobotryae / Loquat Leaf)

Qian Hu 前胡 (Radix Peucedani / Hogfennel Root)

Sang Bai Pi 桑白皮 (Cortex Mori / Mulberry Root Bark)

Sha Ji 沙棘 (Fructus Hippophae / Sea Buckthorn)

Tian Nan Xing 天南星 (Rhizoma Arisaematis / Jack-in-the-Pulpit Rhizome)

Tian Zhu Huang 天竺黄 (Concretio Silicea Bambusae / Bamboo Sugar)

Ting Li Zi 葶苈子 (Semen Lepidii / Pepperweed Seed)

Xing Ren 杏仁 (Semen Armeniacae Amarae / Apricot Kernel)

Xuan Fu Hua 旋覆花 (Flos Inulae / Elecampagne Flower)

Xun Ma 荨麻 (Urticae herba / Nettle)

Zao Jiao 皂角 (Fructus Gleditsiae Abnormalis / Chinese Honeylocust Fruit)

Zao Jiao Ci 皂角刺 (Spina Gleditsiae / Chinese Honey Locust Thorn)

Zhe Bei Mu 浙贝母 (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii / Thunberg Fritillaria Bulb)

Zhu Ru 竹茹 (Caulis Bambusae in Taeniam / Bamboo Shavings)

Zi Su Zi 紫蘇子 (Fructus Perillae / Perilla Seed)

Zi Wan 紫菀 (Radix Asteris / Purple Aster Root)


Herbs that Warm the Interior and Expel Cold

Ba Jiao Hui Xiang 八角茴香 (Fructus Illicium verum / Chinese Star Anise)

Bi Ba 蓽茇 (Fructus Piperis Longi / Long Pepper)

Cao Wu 草乌 (Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii seu Agrestis / Wild Aconite Root)

Chuan Wu 川乌 (Radix Aconiti Preparata / Sichuan Aconite Root)

Ding Xiang 丁香 (Flos Caryophylli / Clove)

Fu Zi 附子 (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata / Aconite Root)

Gan Jiang 干姜 (Rhizoma Zingiberis / Dried GInger)

Gao Liang Jiang 高良姜 (Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinarum / Galangal Rhizome)

Hua Jiao 花椒 (Pericarpium Zanthoxyli / Sichuan Pepper)

Jiu (Alcohol / Rice Wine)

La Jiao 辣椒 (Fructus Capsici / Chili Pepper)

Qiao Ke Li 巧克力 (Theobroma cacao / Cocoa Bean)

Rou Gui 肉桂 (Cortex Cinnamomi / Cinnamon Bark)

Rou Gui Ye 肉桂葉 (Folium Cinnamomi / Cinnamon Leaf)

Wu Zhu Yu 吴茱萸 (Fructus Evodiae / Evodia Fruit)

Xiao Hui Xiang 小茴香 (Fructus Foeniculi / Fennel Seed)


Obsolete Substances

Chuan Shan Jia 穿山甲 (Squama Manitis / Pangolin Scales)

Hu Gu 虎骨 (Os Tigris / Tiger Bone)

Huang Dan 黄丹 (Minium / Lead Tetroxide / Red Lead)

Ma Qian Zi 马钱子 (Semen Strychni / Nux-Vomica Seeds)

Peng Sha 硼砂 (Borax)

Qian Dan 铅丹 (Miniumite / Lead Oxide)

Qing Fen 輕粉 (Calomelas / Mercurous Chloride / Calomel)

Xi Jiao 犀角 (Cornu Rhinocerotis Asiatici / Rhinoceros Horn)

Xiong Huang 雄黃 (Realgar / Arsenic Sulfide / Ruby Sulphur)

Ying Su Ke 罂粟壳 (Pericarpium Papaveris / Opium Poppy)

Zhu Sha 朱砂 (Cinnabaris / Cinnabar)


Substances for External Application

Chan Su 蟾酥 (Venenum Bufonis / Toad Venom)

Er Cha 儿茶 (Pasta Acaciae / Catechu)

Feng La 蜂蜡 (Cera Flava / Beeswax)

Liu Huang 硫黄 (Sulfur grundum / Sulfur granules)

Ma You 香油 (Oleum Sesami / Sesame Oil)

Mu Bie Zi 木鳖子 (Semen Momordicae / Cochin Bitter Melon Seeds)

She Chuang Zi 蛇床子 (Fructus Cnidii / Cnidium Seed)

Zhang Nao 樟脑 (Camphora / Camphor)


Substances that Calm the Spirit

Bai Zi Ren 柏子仁 (Semen Platycladi / Arborvitae Seed)

Ci Shi 磁石 (Magnetitum / Magnetite)

He Huan Pi 合欢皮 (Cortex Albizziae / Mimosa Tree Bark)

Hu Po 琥珀 (Succinum / Amber)

Ling Zhi 靈芝 (Ganoderma lucidum / Reishi Mushroom)

Long Chi 龙齿 (Dens Draconis / Fossilised Teeth)

Long Gu 龙骨 (Ossa Draconis / Fossilised Bones)

Mu Li 牡蛎 (Concha Ostreae / Oyster Shell)

Sheng Tie Luo 生铁落 (Ferrosic Oxide / Oxidised Iron Filings)

Suan Zao Ren 酸枣仁 (Semen Ziziphi Spinosae / Spiny Date Seed)

Xie Cao 纈草 (Radix Valerianae / Valerian Root)

Ye Jiao Teng 夜交藤 (Caulis Polygoni Multiflori / Fleeceflower Vine)

Yuan Zhi 远志 (Radix Polygalae / Chinese Senega)

Zhen Zhu 珍珠 (Margarita / Pearl)

Zhen Zhu Mu 珍珠母 (Concha Margaritifera Usta / Mother-of-Pearl Shell)

Zi Shi Ying 紫石英 (Fluoritum / Fluorite)


Substances that Extinguish Wind and Stop Tremors

Bai Jiang Can 白僵蠶 (Bombyx Batryticatus / Silkworm)

Da Ma 大麻 (Cannabis sativa / Marijuana)

Dai Mao 玳瑁 (Carapax Eretmochelyos / Hawksbill Turtle Shell)

Dai Zhe Shi 代赭石 (Haematitum / Haematite)

Di Long 地龙 (Pheretima seu Lumbricus / Earthworm)

Gou Teng 钩藤 (Ramulus Uncariae cum Uncis / Cat's Claw Vine)

Ji Li 蒺藜 (Fructus Tribuli / Caltrop Fruit)

Jiang Can 僵蚕 (Bombyx Batryticatus / Silkworm)

Ling Yang Jiao 羚羊角 (Cornu Saigae Tataricae / Antelope's Horn)

Quan Xie 全蝎 (Buthus Martensi / Scorpion)

Shi Jue Ming 石决明 (Concha Haliotidis / Abalone Shell)

Tian Ma 天麻 (Rhizoma Gastrodiae elata / Gastrodia Rhizome)

Wu Gong 蜈蚣 (Scolopendra / Centipede)


Tonify Qi

Feng Mi 蜂蜜 (Mel / Honey)


Reference Notes: (click to display)

These pages are intended to assist clinicians and are not intended for self-diagnosis or treatment for which a qualified professional should be consulted.