Acupuncture Points Notebook

Searchable Database

I have compiled a database of points to which I add my own research notes drawn from lectures, experience, books and contemplation along with a few short notes to act as prompts and reminders. It is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion, for which each of these channels, collaterals and vessels have whole textbooks and courses that explain their functions and methods of interacting with them in far more detail. Nor is this a guide to self-treatment which should always be carried out under the guidance of a professional. It is intended primarily as my own resource and this page as an exercise in understanding the classics by rewriting an overview in my own words but I have made it open for other practitioners and students to learn from too. It also forms the basis of my Acupoint Revision Tool.

Bodywork is fundamentally a tactile and empathic art making textual/verbal descriptions at best approximations, mnemonics or metaphors to be understood fully with demonstration and experience.

If Chinese characters are not displaying I recommend installing the font HanaMinA.ttf which contains traditional characters.


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Primary Channels

These are the main meridians which can be used in most practices. They transport the Ying Qi, generated by the Spleen and are accessed at the medium depth of the flesh. They are the central meridians which through which the and Zangfu organs connect with the body and form the trunk from which the collaterals all branch from. In classical physiology the Zangfu organs were seen like ministers controlling certain funtions throughout the body with the physcial organs only being offices and depots where those functions were most condensed. Modern TCM gave them more specific anatomical functions that correlated better with western knowledge but likely lost some of their subtlety in the process. The description of their function as defined in the Nei Jing: Su Wen (trans. Unschuld & Tessenow, 2011) has been included with their standard TCM functions and a few other additional notes of clinical importance.

Hand Taiyin Lung



Associated with Metal, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The lung is the official functioning as chancellor and mentor . Order and moderation originate in it."

In TCM it is said to:

  • Govern Qi and control respiration
  • Control the Channels and Blood Vessels
  • Control disseminating and descending
  • Regulate the water passages
  • Control the skin, sweat glands and body hair
  • Open into the nose
  • House the Po
  • Govern the voice

Lu-1: 中府 Zhongfu
Lu-2: 雲門 Yunmen
Lu-3: 天府 Tianfu
Lu-4: 俠白 Xiabai
Lu-5: 尺澤 Chize
Lu-6: 孔最 Kongzui
Lu-7: 列缺 Lieque
Lu-8: 經渠 Jingqu
Lu-9: 太淵 Taiyuan
Lu-10: 魚際 Yuji
Lu-11: 少商 Shaoshang


Hand Yangming Large Intestine



Associated with Metal, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The large intestine 大腸 is the official functioning as transmitter along the Way ."

In TCM it is said to receive food and fluids from the Small Intestine, re-absorb some of the fluids then excrete the remainder as faeces. It is also an important channel for clearing Heat and, along with the Stomach channel, for regulating Qi and Blood throughout the body.

LI-1: 商陽 Shangyang
LI-2: 二間 Erjian
LI-3: 三間 Sanjian
LI-4: 合谷 Hegu
LI-5: 陽谿 Yangxi
LI-6: 偏歴 Pianli
LI-7: 溫溜 Wenliu
LI-8: 下廉 Xianlian
LI-9: 上廉 Shangliang
LI-10: 手三里 Shousanli
LI-11: 曲池 Quchi
LI-12: 肘髎 Zhouliao
LI-13: 手五里 Shouwuli
LI-14: 臂臑 Binao
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu
LI-16: 巨骨 Jugu
LI-17: 天鼎 Tianding
LI-18: 扶突 Futu
LI-19: 口禾髎 Kouheliao
LI-20: 迎香 Yingxiang


Foot Yangming Stomach



Associated with Earth, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The spleen and the stomach are the officials responsible for grain storage. The five flavours 五味 originate from them."

The Su Wen ch. 30 also ascribes many agitated, irritable and frenetic types of behaviour (Yangming Syndrome) to Heat in this channel.

In TCM it is said to:

  • Govern the "rotting and ripening" of food
  • Control transportation of food essences (with the Spleen)
  • Control the descending of Qi in the digestive system

St-1: 承泣 Chengqi
St-2: 四白 Sibai
St-3: 巨髎 Juliao
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
St-5: 大迎 Daying
St-6: 頰車 Jiache
St-7: 下關 Xiaguan
St-8: 頭維 Touwei
St-9: 人迎 Renying
St-10: 水突 Shuitu
St-11: 氣舍 Qishe
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
St-13: 氣戶 Qihu
St-14: 库房 Kufang
St-15: 屋翳 Wuyi
St-16: 膺窗 Yingchuang
St-17: 乳中 Ruzhong
St-18: 乳根 Rugen
St-19: 不容 Burong
St-20: 承满 Chenman
St-21: 梁門 Liangmen
St-22: 關門 Guanmen
St-23: 太乙 Taiyi
St-24: 滑肉門 Huaroumen
St-25: 天樞 Tianshu
St-26: 外陵 Wailing
St-27: 大巨 Daju
St-28: 水道 Shuidao
St-29: 归来 Guilai
St-30: 氣沖 Qichong
St-31: 髀關 Biguan
St-32: 伏兔 Futu
St-33: 阴市 Yinshi
St-34: 梁丘 Liangqiu
St-35: 犊鼻 Dubi
St-36: 足三里 Zusanli
St-37: 上巨虛 Shangjuxu
St-38: 條口 Tiaokou
St-39: 下巨虛 Xiajuxu
St-40: 豐隆 Fenglong
St-41: 解谿 Jiexi
St-42: 沖陽 Chongyang
St-43: 陷谷 Xiangu
St-44: 内庭 Neiting
ST-45: 厲兌 Lidui


Foot Taiyin Spleen



Associated with Earth, the Spleen and Stomach are unique in that that the Su Wen, Ch. 8 provides a single description for both, reflecting the close interdependence of their function.

In TCM it is said to:

  • Govern transformation and transportation (of food and drink into Qi)
  • Control the Blood (contains it inside the vessels)
  • Govern the muscles and the four limbs
  • Manifest in the lips
  • Open into the mouth
  • Control the raising of Qi
  • House the Yi
  • Govern thinking

Sp-1: 隱白 Yinbai
Sp-2: 大都 Dadu
Sp-3: 太白 Taibai
Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
Sp-5: 商丘 Shangqiu
Sp-6: 三陰交 Sanyinjiao
Sp-7: 漏谷 Lougu
Sp-8: 地機 Diji
Sp-9: 陰陵泉 Yinlingquan
Sp-10: 血海 Xuehai
Sp-11: 箕門 Jimen
Sp-12: 沖門 Chongmen
Sp-13: 府舍 Fushe
Sp-14: 腹結 Fujie
Sp-15: 大横 Daheng
Sp-16: 腹哀 Fuhai
Sp-17: 食竇 Shidou
Sp-18: 天谿 Tianxi
Sp-19: 胸鄉 Xiongxiang
Sp-20: 周榮 Zhourong
Sp-21: 大包 Dabao
Hand Shaoyin Heart



Associated with the Sovereign Fire, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The heart is the official functioning as ruler . Spirit brilliance 神明 originates in it."

In TCM it is said to:

  • Stores the Shen
  • Govern the Blood and Vessels
  • Open into the tongue
  • Manifest in the facial complexion
  • Govern Joy
  • Control sweating

He-1: 極泉 Jiquan
He-2: 青靈 Qingling
He-3: 少海 Shaohai
He-4: 靈道 Lingdao
He-5: 通里 Tongli
He-6: 陰郄 Yinxi
He-7: 神門 Shenmen
He-8: 少府 Shaofu
He-9: 少沖 Shaochong


Hand Taiyang Small Intestine



Associated with the Sovereign Fire, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The small intestine 小腸 is the official functioning as recipient of what has been perfected . The transformation of things originates in it."

In TCM it is said to receive food and fluids from the Stomach and "Separate the Pure from the Impure", sending the pure essence to the Spleen for transformation and transportation around the body while the impure part is sent to the Bladder and Large Intestine for excretion. Its connection with the Heart and Bladder also enable it to act as the conduit through which Fire can be drained from the Heart and expelled via the Bladder.

SI-1: 少澤 Shaoze
SI-2: 前谷 Qiangu
SI-3: 後谿 Houxi
SI-4: 腕骨 Wangu
SI-5: 陽谷 Yanggu
SI-6: 養老 Yanglao
SI-7: 支正 Zhizheng
SI-8: 小海 Xiaohai
SI-9: 肩貞 Jianzhen
SI-10: 臑俞 Naoshu
SI-11: 天宗 Tianzhong
SI-12: 秉風 Bingfeng
SI-13: 曲垣 Quyuan
SI-14: 肩外俞 Jianwaishu
SI-15: 肩中俞 Jianzhongzhu
SI-16: 天窗 Tianchuang
SI-17: 天容 Tianrong
SI-18: 顴髎 Quanliao
SI-19: 聽宮 Tinggong


Foot Taiyang Bladder



Associated with Water, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The urinary bladder 膀胱 is the official functioning as regional rectifier 州都. The body liquids are stored in it. When the qi is transformed 津液, then [fluids] can originate [from there]."

This last phrase may refer to sweat as well as urine because the Taiyang is where the defensive Wei Qi roams outside of the meridians, guarding the body from external invasion and is excreted in sweat.

In TCM it is said to receive the impure fluids from the Small Intestine where it is excreted as urine.

Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming
Bl-2: 攢竹 Zanzhu
Bl-3: 眉衝 Meichong
Bl-4: 曲差 Quchai
Bl-5: 五處 Wuchu
Bl-6: 承光 Chengguang
Bl-7: 通天 Tongtian
Bl-8: 絡卻 Luoque
Bl-9: 玉枕 Yuzhen
Bl-10: 天柱 Tianzhu
Bl-11: 大杼 Dazhu
Bl-12: 風門 Fengmen
Bl-13: 肺俞 Feishu
Bl-14: 厥陰俞 Jueyinshu
Bl-15: 心俞 Xin Shu
Bl-16: 督俞 Dushu
Bl-17: 膈俞 Geshu
Bl-18: 肝俞 Ganshu
Bl-19: 膽俞 Danshu
Bl-20: 脾俞 Pishu
Bl-21: 胃俞 Weishu
Bl-22: 三焦俞 Sanjiaoshu
Bl-23: 腎俞 Shenshu
Bl-24: 氣海俞 Qihaishu
Bl-25: 大腸俞 Dachangshu
Bl-26: 關元俞 Guanyuanshu
Bl-27: 小腸俞 Xiaochangshu
Bl-28: 膀胱俞 Pangguangshu
Bl-29: 中膂俞 Zhonglushu
Bl-30: 白環俞 Baihuanshu
Bl-31: 上髎 Shangliao
Bl-32: 次髎 Ciliao
Bl-33: 中髎 Zhongliao
Bl-34: 下髎 Xialiao
Bl-35: 會陽 Huiyang
Bl-36: 承扶 Chengfu
Bl-37: 殷門 Yinmen
Bl-38: 浮郄 Fuxi
Bl-39: 委陽 Weiyang
Bl-40: 委中 Weizhong
Bl-41: 附分 Fufen
Bl-42: 魄戶 Pohu
Bl-43: 膏肓俞 Gaohuangshu
Bl-44: 神堂 Shentang
Bl-45: 譩譆 Yixi
Bl-46: 膈關 Geguan
Bl-47: 魂門 Hunmen
Bl-48: 陽綱 Yanggang
Bl-49: 意舍 Yishe
Bl-50: 胃倉 Weicang
Bl-51: 肓門 Huangmen
Bl-52: 志室 Zhishi
Bl-53: 胞肓 Baohuang
Bl-54: 秩邊 Zhibian
Bl-55: 合陽 Heyang
Bl-56: 承筋 Chengjin
Bl-57: 承山 Chengshan
Bl-58: 飛陽 Feiyang
Bl-59: 跗陽 Fuyang
Bl-60: 昆侖 Kunlun
Bl-61: 僕參 Pucan
Bl-62: 申脈 Shenmai
Bl-63: 金門 Jinmen
Bl-64: 京骨 Jinggu
Bl-65: 束骨 Shugu
Bl-66: 足通谷 Zutonggu
Bl-67: 至陰 Zhiyin


Foot Shaoyin Kidney



Associated with Water, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The kidneys are the official functioning as operator with force . Technical skills and expertise originate from them."

In TCM it is said to:

  • store essence (jing) and dominate human reproduction and development
  • Dominate water metabolism and the reception of qi from the air
  • Produce marrow to fill up the brain
  • Dominate bone
  • Manufacture Blood
  • Manifest in the head hair
  • Open into the ear
  • Dominate the two lower orifices
  • House the Zhi

Kid-1: 涌泉 Yongquan
Kid-2: 然谷 Rangu
Kid-3: 太谿 Taixi
Kid-4: 大鐘 Dazhong
Kid-5: 水泉 Shuiquan
Kid-6: 照海 Zhaohai
Kid-7: 復溜 Fuliu
Kid-8: 交信 Jiaoxin
Kid-9: 築賓 Zhibin
Kid-10: 陰谷 Yingu
Kid-11: 橫骨 Henggu
Kid-12: 大赫 Dahe
Kid-13: 氣穴 Qixue
Kid-14: 四滿 Siman
Kid-15: 中注 Zhongzhu
Kid-16: 肓俞 Huangshu
Kid-17: 商曲 Shangqu
Kid-18: 石關 Shiguan
Kid-19: 陰都 Yindu
Kid-20: 腹通谷 Futonggu
Kid-21: 幽門 Youmen
Kid-22: 步廊 Bulang
Kid-23: 神封 Shenfeng
Kid-24: 靈墟 Lingxu
Kid-25: 神藏 Shencang
Kid-26: 彧中 Yuzhong
Kid-27: 俞府 Shufu
Hand Jueyin Pericardium



Associated with the Ministerial Fire, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The chest centre is the official functioning as minister and envoy 使. Joy and happiness originate in it."

In TCM it's function is to protect the Heart and share in the same functions of governing Blood and storing the Spirit.

Pc-1: 天池 Tianchi
Pc-2: 天泉 Tianquan
Pc-3: 曲澤 Quze
Pc-4: 郄門 Ximen
Pc-5: 間使 Jianshi
Pc-6: 內關 Neiguan
Pc-7: 大陵 Daling
Pc-8: 勞宮 Laogong
Pc-9: 中衝 Zhongchong


Hand Shaoyang Triple Burner



Associated with the Ministerial Fire, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The triple burner 三焦 is the official functioning as opener of channels . The paths of water 水道 originate in it."

In TCM it's function is to assist the metabolism of other organs providing the passageways through which the Spleen and Kidneys' transporting functions operate. Its connection with the Pericardium and relationship to water also enables it to act as a conduit for draining Ministerial Fire similar to what the Small Intestine can do for the Heart.

SJ-1: 關衝 Guanchong
SJ-2: 液門 Yemen
SJ-3: 中渚 Zhongzhu
SJ-4: 陽池 Yangchi
SJ-5: 外關 Waiguan
SJ-6: 支溝 Zhigou
SJ-7: 會宗 Huizong
SJ-8: 三陽絡 Sanyangluo
SJ-9: 四瀆 Sidu
SJ-10: 天井 Tianjing
SJ-11: 清冷淵 Qinglengyuan
SJ-12: 消濼 Xiaoluo
SJ-13: 臑會 Naohui
SJ-14: 肩髎 Jianliao
SJ-15: 天髎 Tianliao
SJ-16: 天牖 Tianyou
SJ-17: 翳風 Yifeng
SJ-18: 契脈 Qimai
SJ-19: 顱息 Luxi
SJ-20: 角孫 Jiaosun
SJ-21: 耳門 Ermen
SJ-22: 耳和髎 Erheliao
SJ-23: 絲竹空 Sizhukong


Foot Shaoyang Gall Bladder



Associated with Metal, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The gallbladder is the official functioning as rectifier 中正. Decisions and judgments 決斷 originate in it."

In TCM it is said to:

  • Receive and store bile from the Liver
  • Control judgement and the courage to make decisions

GB-1: 瞳子髎 Tongziliao
GB-2: 聽會 Tinghui
GB-3: 上關 Shangguan
GB-4: 頷厭 Hanyan
GB-5: 懸顱 Xuanlu
GB-6: 懸厘 Xuanli
GB-7: 曲鬢 Qubin
GB-8: 率谷 Shuaigu
GB-9: 天沖 Tianchong
GB-10: 浮白 Fubai
GB-11: 頭竅陰 Touqiaoyin
GB-12: 完骨 Wangu
GB-13: 本神 Benshen
GB-14: 陽白 Yangbai
GB-15: 頭臨泣 Toulinqi
GB-16: 目窗 Muchuang
GB-17: 正營 Zhengying
GB-18: 承靈 Chengling
GB-19: 腦空 Naokong
GB-20: 風池 Fengchi
GB-21: 肩井 Jianjing
GB-22: 淵腋 Yuanye
GB-23: 輒筋 Zhejin
GB-24: 日月 Riyue
GB-25: 京門 Jingmen
GB-26: 帶脈 Daimai
GB-27: 五樞 Wushu
GB-28: 維道 Weidao
GB-29: 居髎 Juliao
GB-30: 環跳 Huantiao
GB-31: 風市 Fengshi
GB-32: 中瀆 Zhongdu
GB-33: 膝陽關 Xiyangguan
GB-34: 陽陵泉 Yanglingquan
GB-35: 陽交 Yangqiao
GB-36: 外丘 Waiqiu
GB-37: 光明 Guangming
GB-38: 陽輔 Yangfu
GB-39: 懸鐘 Xuanzhong
GB-40: 丘墟 Qiuxu
GB-41: 足臨泣 Zulinqi
GB-42: 地五會 Diwushui
GB-43: 俠谿 Xiaxi
GB-44: 足竅陰 Zuqiaoyin


Foot Jueyin Liver



Associated with Wood, the Su Wen, Ch. 8 says: "The liver is the official functioning as general 將軍. Planning and deliberation originate in it."

In TCM it is said to:

  • Govern the free flow of Qi
  • Store the Blood
  • Open into the eyes
  • Govern the tendons
  • Manifest in the nails
  • Govern anger
  • House the Hun

Liv-1: 大敦 Dadun
Liv-2: 行間 Xingjian
Liv-3: 太沖 Taichong
Liv-4: 中封 Zhongfeng
Liv-5: 蠡溝 Ligou
Liv-6: 中都 Zhongdu
Liv-7: 膝關 Xiguan
Liv-8: 曲泉 Ququan
Liv-9: 陰包 Yinbao
Liv-10: 足五里 Zuwuli
Liv-11: 陰廉 Yinlian
Liv-12: 急脈 Jimai
Liv-13: 章門 Zhangmen
Liv-14: 期門 Qimen











The Collaterals

The collaterals describe a system of defending and protecting the body from pathogens, both internal and external. Ancient medicine used the metaphor of a walled city state, under seige from external threats, the skin functioning like a wall with various gates in and out and the meridians as communication passageways within. Prolonged conflict would eventually deplete the resources inside leading to deficiency. The collaterals represented the various defensive layers, ramparts and holding cells where problems can be contained until they are able to be expelled. Each layer is related to a different tissue located at a different depth, goverened by a different phase of the Wuxing and predominantly manifesting a different elemental process. Their treatments naturally differ too with the more superficial being characterised by swift, shallow procedures aimed at releasing and moving excesses while problems at a deeper level are characterised by greater levels of deficiency and needle deeper with longer retention to give more rest and recuperation. The Su Wen, Ch. 51 warns that we should not mix these types but be clear what we are treating and maintain our focus. If several levels are involved they were treated sequentially usually by clearing obstructions from the superficial Luo and then addressing the main channels and organs as Su Wen, Ch. 24 suggests.

The simplest example is in response to a knock, fall, or exposure to other external stresses outlined in Su Wen, Ch. 3 where the "the sequence of the seasons" is referring to the five phases and therefore five levels of defence the body has against disease:

The impact or exposure threatens to breach the exterior wall and enable harmful factors carried by Wind to enter the system. Wind can mean a literal draft but also has the connotation of any sudden change. Even injury from overwork or overstrain follows this route, either exhausting our defences or forcing the sweat pores to open allowing external climactic factors to invade. This may seem quaint by modern anatomy but if read literally as going out unprotected in the cold will cause the body to become cold then it seems like straightforward practical advice into which modern theories of cold inhibiting our immune system or peripheral circulation can be appended. The practical aspect is that the appropriate treatment protocol is indicated by the type of problem and its location at the time of presentation.

First the Sinews attempt to absorb the shock and if the pathogen cannot be repelled they contract (Metal phase), closing the sweat pores, Sinews and Channels, inhibiting its movement deeper. Pathogens stuck at this level are detectable by the presence of Cold with pain, spasms and restriction in movement. Unfortunately this works both ways and creates stagnation at the points where the problem has moved to.

To relieve the stagnation and open the channels Blood is brought in, carrying warmth from the Heart (Fire phase) which relaxes and opens to ease the constriction. If it cannot then it stores the problem in the Luo until it can be resolved making the area visibly flush and may break to form a bruise if filled to bursting. The stagnation generates Heat which may dispel mild Cold but may also become a pathogen in its own right damaging the tissues with intense Fire Toxins ().

To prevent this the body uses its fluids (Water phase) reserves to dampen the Heat. If this does not work it may develop into a chronic problem that must be contained in the Divergent Channels where the body must consume its resources to hold the problem in latency. This is a trade-off resulting in gradual degeneration as the resources become exhausted characterised by cycles of relapse and remission, usually of Damp-Heat hot swellings and Phlegm hard nodules, as resources fluctuate and structural changes occur.

The Extraordinary Vessels function as reservoirs for these resources helping to maintain balance and may have to contain overflowing pathogens or become deficient as they attempt to maintain normal functioning. Work with these attempts to restore balance to the system as a whole, the function of the Earth phase. These are all designed to protect the vital functions of the Zangfu officials.

A similar process can be observed with pathogens generated from emotional factors: coming from the Heart and Liver (Ling Shu, Ch. 8:12-14) both organs related to the Blood, they enter the Luo to make regions of the body flush red with Blood activating the physiological response of the emotion and releasing excess Heat through the skin. If there is too much, or one emotion dominates over a long period, it may become stuck in the Luo, in the Sinews as muscular tension and pain, affect the organs by persistently raising, lowering, scattering or knotting the Qi in one place as described in the Su Wen, Ch. 39, and eventually progress to chronic conditions if they are not dealt with appropriately. This idea of the Luo clearing Heat from the Interior was expanded by the Warm Disease school of thought where a slight rash indicated the resolution of a fever as the Blood brought the Internal Heat to the surface but a severe rash indicated too much Heat for the Luo to expel and a poor prognosis.


Sinew Meridans

The Sinew Meridians are described in Ling Shu, Ch. 13 and effectively follow their associated Primary except in wider bands. They do not contain any specific points besides the Jing-Well where they connect to their associated Primary Channel and Ahshi painful points which appear during movement and palpation. They relate to the Wei Qi, the Protective or Defensive aspect, that moves outside the Primary Meridians and more superficially, under the skin in the region governed by the Lungs and includes both the ability to defend ourselves from illness and by moving ourselves away from danger. Pathology of these meridians is determined by pain along their associated pathway and the movement it governs. By using Six Division pairings the majority of the body's surface is covered by the three Yang Divisions, each of which govern a specific movement, while the Yin Divisions cover a relately small area and are concerned more with pain from internal deficiencies:

  • Taiyang: the posterior of the body, indicated by problems with extension.
  • Shaoyang: the sides of the body, indicated by problems with rotation.
  • Yangming: the front of the body, indicated by problems with holding position.
  • Taiyin: the inner surfaces of the body, indicated by problems drawing inwards.
  • Shaoyin: the inner surfaces of the body, indicated by problems turning at rest (e.g. in bed or sitting down).
  • Jueyin: the inner surfaces of the body, indicated by persistent pains not associated with any particular movement.

In the Ling Shu they are treated primarily by fire needling: swiftly piercing and withdrawing a hot needle repeatedly until an effect is seen. The effect may be a resolution of symptoms but the Shang Han Lun also refers to fire needling being employed to force a sweat so this may be meant also. This is not considered a clean technique today so a shallow insertion, obtaining deqi with a chiselling-like movement and then heating with a pecking moxibustion technique until the area is warm and preferably reddened or sweating seems like a close approximation. It can be accompanied with other active, superficial, warming techniques that such as shallow needling with minimal retention, Tuina massage and moxa that enable continual reassessment of the movement that is compromised. This might seem contradictory since the pain and stiffness is felt in the muscles but modern neurological theories suggest manual therapies are unlikely to be operating on the underlying muscle structure but find interacting with nerve receptors in the skin to be a more likely mechanism (i.e. dermoneuromodulation) and more effective when combined with active movement. Liniments and poultices are also often used and exercises that initiate a mild perspiration can be included as working on the sinews.


Luo Vessels

The Luo are vessels containing Blood, governed by the Heart with pathways bear similarity to maps of blood flow in specific emotional states (Nummenmaa et al, 2014). In classical medicine they temporarily store pathogenic excesses and bring them to the surface to be expelled. Their involvement is determined by colour changes on the skin as it flushes or erupts red with Heat, blue-green with Cold and bruising black with fixed points of pain when they overflow and the Blood stagnates. The symptoms given in Ling Shu Ch. 10 can be interpreted symbolically as somatised emotional states. They do not have points, except the first one where it separates from the Primary Channel and the Yuan Source point on its Yin/Yang pair but the points given here help to help trace their pathways.

Traditionally a full Luo is treated with a prick to bleed or plum blossom method. A pathogen in the channels can also be redirected into an empty Luo using moxa on the Luo point until it flushes to signify the vessel is open which is then released. Other methods that bring the Blood to the surface and release pathogens through sweating (cupping, Guasha, some Tuina techniques) can be seen as working with the Luo too as Blood and sweat are from the same source (Ling Shu, Ch. 18:6) or they can be used diagnostically to bring out hidden areas of Blood stasis and the most bruised areas treated with a plum blossom or pricking technique (preferably on a separate day as any oils or tools used on the skin prior to needling may compromise clean needle technique). They can also just be used purely diagnostically, providing a link between visible signs on the skin and underlying organs. In TCM the only real use of the Luo left are point functions like Pc-6 and St-40 for emotional disorders and the Guest-Host method where an pathogen is transferred by needling the Yuan-Source point of the channel involved and the Luo of its Internal/External pair, such as L.I.-4 and Lu-7 for head-colds but in classical times there were often treated first to clear the superficial routes of expulsion before other treatments commenced.

The sequence of the Luo of the 12 main channels is cyclical and able to transmit interiorly or exteriorly to its neighbouring division or to its Yin/Yang pair. The transverse channels provide a link from its paired organ to the Luo via the Yuan Source point. The first two columns should therefore be considered a circle with movement possible vertically and horizontally with the most exterior at the top left (the Yangming Stomach and Large Intestine, ascending to the head and face which most often flush with emotion). The extraordinary and great Luo are employed when the main 12 overflow.

Hand Yangming Large Intestine Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Teeth decay and hearing is impaired
Depletion: Teeth are cold with a blockage barrier ( Bi obstruction)

Longitudinal:
LI-6: 偏歴 Pianli
LI-11: 曲池 Quchi
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu
St-5: 大迎 Daying
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
SI-19: 聽宮 Tinggong

Transverse:
LI-6: 偏歴 Pianli
Lu-9: 太淵 Taiyuan

Hand Taiyin Lung Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: The palms are hot
Depletion: The patient yawns, breathes with their mouth open and urinates frequently passing only small amounts

Longitudinal:
Lu-7: 列缺 Lieque
Lu-10: 魚際 Yuji
Pc-8: 勞宮 Laogong

Transverse:
Lu-7: 列缺 Lieque
LI-4: 合谷 Hegu

Foot Yangming Stomach Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Rebellion: Throat blockage ( Bi) and inability to speak
Repletion: Madness ( Kuang Dian)
Depletion: The feet can no longer be controlled

Longitudinal:
St-40: 豐隆 Fenglong
St-13: 氣戶 Qihu
Du-20: 百會 Baihui
St-9: 人迎 Renying

Transverse:
St-40: 豐隆 Fenglong
Sp-3: 太白 Taibai

Foot Taiyin Spleen Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Rebellion: Cholera (霍亂 "Sudden Turmoil")
Repletion: Cutting pain in the intestine
Depletion: Abdomen swells like a drum

Longitudinal:
Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan

Transverse:
Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
St-42: 沖陽 Chongyang

Hand Shaoyang San Jiao Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Elbows suffer cramps
Depletion: Unable to contract the lower arm

SJ-5: 外關 Waiguan
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu
Lu-2: 雲門 Yunmen
Lu-1: 中府 Zhongfu
St-17: 乳中 Ruzhong
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Ren-15: 鳩尾 Jiuwei
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan

Transverse:
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu
Pc-7: 大陵 Daling

Hand Jueyin Pericardium Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Pain in the heart
Depletion: The head feels heavy

Longitudinal:
Pc-6: 內關 Neiguan
He-1: 極泉 Jiquan
Pc-1: 天池 Tianchi
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong

Transverse:
Pc-6: 內關 Neiguan
SJ-4: 陽池 Yangchi

Foot Shaoyang Gall Bladder Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Qi recedes in the legs
Depletion: Paralysis and loss of function of the legs

Longitudinal:
GB-37: 光明 Guangming
St-42: 沖陽 Chongyang

Transverse:
GB-37: 光明 Guangming
Liv-3: 太沖 Taichong

Foot Jueyin Liver Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Rebellion: Swollen testicles and hernia
Repletion: Persistent erection or arousal
Depletion: A violent itch

Longitudinal:
Liv-5: 蠡溝 Ligou
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu

Transverse:
Liv-5: 蠡溝 Ligou
GB-40: 丘墟 Qiuxu

Hand Taiyang Small Intestine Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: The joints relax and the elbows no longer function
Depletion: Warts grow, especially small red itchy ones at the fingers resembling scabies .

Longitudinal:
SI-7: 支正 Zhizheng
SI-8: 小海 Xiaohai
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu

Transverse:
SI-7: 支正 Zhizheng
He-7: 神門 Shenmen

Hand Shaoyin Heart Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: A feeling of fullness in the diaphragm
Depletion: Inability to speak

Longitudinal:
He-5: 通里 Tongli
He-1: 極泉 Jiquan
Lu-2: 雲門 Yunmen
St-11: 氣舍 Qishe
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming
St-1: 承泣 Chengqi
St-5: 大迎 Daying

Transverse:
He-5: 通里 Tongli
SI-4: 腕骨 Wangu

Foot Taiyang Bladder Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Nose is blocked, head and back ache
Depletion: Nasal flow and nosebleed

Longitudinal:
Bl-58: 飛陽 Feiyang
Kid-4: 大鐘 Dazhong
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Kid-21: 幽門 Youmen

Transverse:
Bl-58: 飛陽 Feiyang
Kid-3: 太谿 Taixi

Foot Shaoyin Kidney Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Rebellion: Vexation and heart pressure (煩悶).
Repletion: Closure with protuberance-illness ( urinary retention)
Depletion: Lower back aches

Longitudinal:
Kid-4: 大鐘 Dazhong
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Kid-21: 幽門 Youmen

Transverse:
Kid-4: 大鐘 Dazhong
Bl-64: 京骨 Jinggu

Extraordinary Ren Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Abdominal skin aches
Depletion: Itching

Ren-15: 鳩尾 Jiuwei

Extraordinary Du Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: The back is stiff
Depletion: The head feels heavy

Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Ex-BW-2: 華佗夾脊 Huatuojiaji
Bl-10: 天柱 Tianzhu
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming

Great Spleen Luo

Ling Shu Ch. 10 describes the symptoms as:
Repletion: Entire body aches
Depletion: All the joints relax

Sp-21: 大包 Dabao

Great Stomach Luo

The Ling Shu does not mention this vessel but the Su Wen refers to it as Xu Li, the "Empty Mile", suggesting exhaustion of the Luo system. Associated symptoms are chest congestion and irregular breathing or palpitations and necessitate extraordinary vessel treatment.

Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan
St-18: 乳根 Rugen


Diverent Meridians

Tantalisingly little is writen about these meridians in the classics except their pathways described in Ling Shu, Ch. 11. In TCM they simply provide connections between the Yin and Yang pairs of organs and channels but oral traditions have taught that they serve a similar function to the other collaterals, storing pathogens that cannot be expelled through the Luo and Sinews. From their origins at the He Sea points or major joints and the similarity of their pathways to the lymph nodes they are associated with autoimmunity and degenerative inflammatory disorders.

The theory is that once the Sinews and Luo have failed to contain a pathogen the Divergents represent a last line of defence before the Zangfu organs are attacked directly. The Divergents hold the pathogen in latency using our body's resources, depleting them as they do. Their sequence is therefore in order of the resources used to maintain this latency, written in parentheses and descending from left to right, then top to bottom. Diagnosis may be made by degeneration along the trajectory, inflammation of the associated organs as the pathogen escapes, or depletion of the corresponding substance. The aim of treatment is often maintenance of latency by nourishing the substances being depleted using deeper needling and longer retention times although when it is possible to make progress then clearing protocols exist too. The typical technique for these is to needle deeply, grasp the Qi, draw up to the surface and grasp the Qi again, then return to the depth in order to maintain latency, or the reverse, from superficial-deep-superficial to expel. Since grasping Qi and moving the needle twice in succession may be unpleasant, especially for the depleted, it may best to split this complex manipulation into stages.

In contrast to the standard elemental controlling phases where Water-Kidneys should come next, these relate to the tendons, governed by the Liver and Wood. This comes from the depiction of the five phase as a cross with Earth connecting to all in the centre and the order going from Water/winter, Wood/spring, Fire/summer and Metal/autumn. The interchangable nature of the Liver and Kidneys in the two models demonstrates the interconnectedness of the two often seen in clinic such as in Liver/Kidney Yin deficiency, or the ordering of the levels in the Shang Han Lun where Jueyin Liver/Pericardium is placed deeper than the Shaoyin Heart/Kidneys despite the Shaoyin axis generally being considered the central pivot (One solution to this is that Jueyin, Reverting Yin, is Yin returning to Yang so actually less central to the core than Shaoyin).

The Liver is said to be "Yin in form but Yang in function" with the ability to both store and be expansive. The tendons reflect this connecting the deepest, most Yin level of the bones to the Sinews that govern movement in the most Yang and superficial realm. Additional points that infleunce the Yuan and Wei Qi that come from these realms can be added to direct the treatment such as Yuan-Source, front or back Shu, front Mu, He-Sea, Hui-Meeting, Ren, Du, Kidney, San Jiao, Jing-Well, Xi-Cleft and Ahshi painful points. It would make sense to include symptom points along the associated primary channel when the pathogen is active, clearing the primary and opening the Divergent to store or release.

Bladder (Essence, Jing) Divergent
Bl-40: 委中 Weizhong
Bl-36: 承扶 Chengfu
Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Bl-32: 次髎 Ciliao
Ren-3: 中極 Zhongji
Ren-4: 關元 Guanyuan
Bl-28: 膀胱俞 Pangguangshu
Ex-BW-2: 華佗夾脊 Huatuojiaji
Du-4: 命門 Mingmen
Bl-23: 腎俞 Shenshu
Du-11: 神道 Shendao
Bl-15: 心俞 Xin Shu
Bl-44: 神堂 Shentang
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Bl-10: 天柱 Tianzhu

Kidney (Essence, Jing) Divergent
Bl-40: 委中 Weizhong
Kid-10: 陰谷 Yingu
Bl-36: 承扶 Chengfu
Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Bl-32: 次髎 Ciliao
Ren-3: 中極 Zhongji
Ren-4: 關元 Guanyuan
Bl-28: 膀胱俞 Pangguangshu
Du-4: 命門 Mingmen
Bl-23: 腎俞 Shenshu
GB-26: 帶脈 Daimai
Sp-15: 大横 Daheng
St-25: 天樞 Tianshu
Kid-16: 肓俞 Huangshu
Ren-8: 神闕 Shenque
Kid-27: 俞府 Shufu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
Bl-10: 天柱 Tianzhu

Gall Bladder (Blood, Xue) Divergent
GB-30: 環跳 Huantiao
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu
Ren-3: 中極 Zhongji
GB-25: 京門 Jingmen
Liv-13: 章門 Zhangmen
GB-24: 日月 Riyue
Liv-14: 期門 Qimen
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Pc-1: 天池 Tianchi
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
St-5: 大迎 Daying
GB-1: 瞳子髎 Tongziliao

Liver (Blood, Xue) Divergent
Liv-5: 蠡溝 Ligou
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu
Ren-3: 中極 Zhongji
GB-25: 京門 Jingmen
Liv-13: 章門 Zhangmen
GB-24: 日月 Riyue
Liv-14: 期門 Qimen
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Pc-1: 天池 Tianchi
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
St-5: 大迎 Daying
GB-1: 瞳子髎 Tongziliao

Stomach (Thin Fluids, Jin) Divergent
St-30: 氣沖 Qichong
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
St-9: 人迎 Renying
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
LI-20: 迎香 Yingxiang
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming

Spleen (Thin Fluids, Jin) Divergent
Sp-12: 沖門 Chongmen
St-30: 氣沖 Qichong
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
St-9: 人迎 Renying
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
LI-20: 迎香 Yingxiang
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming

Small Intestine (Thick Fluids, Ye) Divergent
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming
SI-18: 顴髎 Quanliao
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
SI-10: 臑俞 Naoshu
He-1: 極泉 Jiquan
GB-22: 淵腋 Yuanye
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Ren-4: 關元 Guanyuan

Heart (Thick Fluids, Ye) Divergent
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
GB-22: 淵腋 Yuanye
He-1: 極泉 Jiquan
Ren-4: 關元 Guanyuan

Triple Burner (Qi) Divergent
SJ-16: 天牖 Tianyou
Du-20: 百會 Baihui
GB-12: 完骨 Wangu
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan

Pericardium (Qi) Divergent
SJ-16: 天牖 Tianyou
GB-12: 完骨 Wangu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
GB-22: 淵腋 Yuanye
Pc-1: 天池 Tianchi
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan

Large Intestine (Yang) Divergent
LI-18: 扶突 Futu
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
Du-14: 大椎 Dazhui
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu
He-1: 極泉 Jiquan
St-15: 屋翳 Wuyi
Lu-1: 中府 Zhongfu
St-25: 天樞 Tianshu

Lung (Yang) Divergent
LI-18: 扶突 Futu
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
Lu-1: 中府 Zhongfu
GB-22: 淵腋 Yuanye
GB-8: 率谷 Shuaigu

Extraordinary Vessels

These work at the deepest level of the Jing related to the Kidneys and needling is therefore the deepest, "to the bone", but this often just means deeper than the regular channels or stimulated with techniques that connect with the Jing such as vibrating or shaking techniques like ringing a bell to awaken something inside, or just holding and listening for a response. These also often have longer than usual retention times, up to 40 minutes.

They work at the intersection of medical and spiritual practices and the Nan Jing says they do not to connect with the regular organs but function as reservoirs for Yin, Yang, Qi, Blood and fluids to contain overflow or provide reserves for the regular channels. The presence of eight suggests they are connected with the trigrams of the I Ching that represent archetypal phases of change in Neidan inner transformation practices. Issues at this level are likely to involve long term conditions where substances across many systems have been disrupted preventing personal development in life including inherited or constitutional disorders, long term illness and recovery, and chronic patterns that lie outside of regular pattern diagnosis.

These lists include the common opening points first. They were not part of the original descriptions but added in the Yuan dynasty. It is equally valid to just use points along the trajectory and no others but extra points that connect to the Yuan Source level such as Yuan Source, front or back Shu, front Mu, He sea, Hui meeting, Ren, Du, Kidney or San Jiao points, can be added if necessary to direct the treatment.


Ren Mai (First Branch)

Ren translates as "controller" or "responsible" but is often rendered as "conception" (being responsible for a life) reflecting the importance of this vessel in fertility issues. Associated with ☷ Kun and Yin, symptoms of disharmony involve various imbalances of Yin, described in Nan Jing ch. 29 as abdominal knotting, bulging disorders in men and masses in women, both accumulations of Yin.

Lu-7: 列缺 Lieque
Ren-1: 會陰 Huiyin
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu
Ren-3: 中極 Zhongji
Ren-4: 關元 Guanyuan
Ren-5: 石門 Shimen
Ren-6: 氣海 Qihai
Ren-7: 陰交 Yinjiao
Ren-8: 神闕 Shenque
Ren-9: 水分 Shuifen
Ren-10: 下脘 Xiawan
Ren-11: 建里 Jianli
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan
Ren-13: 上脘 Shangwan
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Ren-15: 鳩尾 Jiuwei
Ren-16: 中庭 Zhongting
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Ren-18: 玉堂 Yutang
Ren-19: 紫宮 Zigong
Ren-20: 華蓋 Huagai
Ren-21: 璇璣 Xuanji
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
Ren-24: 承漿 Chengjiang
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
St-1: 承泣 Chengqi

Ren Mai (Second Branch)

Following the Du channel, this shows the close inter-relationship of these two channels. Reducing one can strengthen the other, nourishing one can reduce the other.

Lu-7: 列缺 Lieque
Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Du-2: 腰俞 Yaoshu
Du-3: 腰陽關 Yaoyangguan
Du-4: 命門 Mingmen
Du-5: 懸樞 Xuanshu
Du-6: 脊中 Jizhong
Du-7: 中樞 Zhongshu
Du-8: 筋縮 Jinsuo
Du-9: 至陽 Zhiyang
Du-10: 霊台 Lingtai
Du-11: 神道 Shendao
Du-12: 身柱 Shenzhu
Du-13: 陶道 Taodao
Du-14: 大椎 Dazhui

Du Mai (First Branch)

The Governing Vessel, associated with ☰ Qian and Yang. Its symptoms include various disorders of Yang. The Su Wen ch. 60 gives arched back when in excess and inability to hold up the head when deficient. In ch. 42 it gives Brain-Wind headache and Wind-Cold eye pain. The Nan Jing ch. 29 gives rigidity of the spine and reversal. The Mai Jing includes seizures and coldness of the back and knees.

SI-3: 後谿 Houxi
Ren-1: 會陰 Huiyin
Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Du-2: 腰俞 Yaoshu
Du-3: 腰陽關 Yaoyangguan
Du-4: 命門 Mingmen
Du-5: 懸樞 Xuanshu
Du-6: 脊中 Jizhong
Du-7: 中樞 Zhongshu
Du-8: 筋縮 Jinsuo
Du-9: 至陽 Zhiyang
Du-10: 霊台 Lingtai
Du-11: 神道 Shendao
Du-12: 身柱 Shenzhu
Du-13: 陶道 Taodao
Du-14: 大椎 Dazhui
Du-15: 啞門 Yamen
Du-16: 風府 Fengfu
Du-17: 腦戶 Naohu
Du-18: 強間 Qiangjian
Du-19: 後頂 Houding
Du-20: 百會 Baihui
Du-21: 前頂 Qianding
Du-22: 囟會 Xinhui
Du-23: 上星 Shangxing
Du-24: 神庭 Shenting
Du-25: 素髎 Suliao
Du-26: 人中 Renzhong
Du-27: 兌端 Duidan
Du-28: 齦交 Yinjiao

Du Mai (Second Branch)

Following the Ren Mai, this demonstrates how we can work on the Yin to anchor the Yang.

SI-3: 後谿 Houxi
Ren-1: 會陰 Huiyin
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu
Ren-3: 中極 Zhongji
Ren-4: 關元 Guanyuan
Ren-5: 石門 Shimen
Ren-6: 氣海 Qihai
Ren-7: 陰交 Yinjiao
Ren-8: 神闕 Shenque
Ren-9: 水分 Shuifen
Ren-10: 下脘 Xiawan
Ren-11: 建里 Jianli
Ren-12: 中脘 Zhongwan
Ren-13: 上脘 Shangwan
Ren-14: 巨闕 Juque
Ren-15: 鳩尾 Jiuwei
Ren-16: 中庭 Zhongting
Ren-17: 膻中 Shanzhong
Ren-18: 玉堂 Yutang
Ren-19: 紫宮 Zigong
Ren-20: 華蓋 Huagai
Ren-21: 璇璣 Xuanji
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
Ren-24: 承漿 Chengjiang
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
St-1: 承泣 Chengqi
Du Mai (Third Branch)

This branch of the Du Mai is mainly concerned with symptoms of Wind and Heat in the head, brain and sensory orifices.

SI-3: 後谿 Houxi
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming
Du-20: 百會 Baihui
Du-16: 風府 Fengfu
Ex-BW-2: 華佗夾脊 Huatuojiaji
Bl-23: 腎俞 Shenshu

Du Mai (Fourth Branch)

Concerned with the ability to uphold Yang and so indicated where Yang is sinking.

SI-3: 後谿 Houxi
Ren-1: 會陰 Huiyin
Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Bl-35: 會陽 Huiyang
Bl-23: 腎俞 Shenshu

Chong Mai (First Branch)

The Rushing or Surging vessel, associated with ☲ Li, Fire, the movement of Blood in the abdomen and therefore the menstrual cycle. Its symptoms are described in Nan Jing ch. 29 as rebellious movement that causes a sense of urgency and tension in the abdomen. This suggests abdominal pain that is better for warmth with cold lower limbs while Heat surges upwards to agitate the Heart in the chest and may reach the face causing skin eruptions, especially around the chin.

Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu
Kid-11: 橫骨 Henggu
St-30: 氣沖 Qichong
Sp-12: 沖門 Chongmen
Kid-12: 大赫 Dahe
Kid-13: 氣穴 Qixue
Kid-14: 四滿 Siman
Kid-15: 中注 Zhongzhu
Kid-16: 肓俞 Huangshu
Kid-17: 商曲 Shangqu
Kid-18: 石關 Shiguan
Kid-19: 陰都 Yindu
Kid-20: 腹通谷 Futonggu
Kid-21: 幽門 Youmen

Chong Mai (Second Branch)

While the first branch deals with the Lower and Middle Jiao Yang escaping, this branch deals with the Upper Jiao symptoms of Heat rebelling upwards such as agitation and chest oppression. It is often paired with the Yin Wei Mai which also affects the chest.

Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
Kid-22: 步廊 Bulang
Kid-23: 神封 Shenfeng
Kid-24: 靈墟 Lingxu
Kid-25: 神藏 Shencang
Kid-26: 彧中 Yuzhong
Kid-27: 俞府 Shufu
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan
St-1: 承泣 Chengqi

Chong Mai (Third Branch)

This branch connects to the Du where it receives Yang Qi to move Blood. It is concerned all manner of Blood stasis patterns especially around the lower Jiao. It is often paired with the Dai Mai which also works on accumulation in the Lower Jiao.

Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
Ren-2: 曲骨 Qugu
St-30: 氣沖 Qichong
GB-26: 帶脈 Daimai
Du-1: 長強 Changqiang
Du-4: 命門 Mingmen
Bl-17: 膈俞 Geshu

Chong Mai (Fourth Branch)

Travels down to connect with the opening point at Gongsun Sp-4. It raises Kidney Yang to assist the ascent of Spleen Qi and support the posture so may be indicated in any disorders of this kind. It is generally treated with Moxa.

Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
Kid-11: 橫骨 Henggu
Kid-10: 陰谷 Yingu
Bl-40: 委中 Weizhong
Kid-3: 太谿 Taixi
Kid-1: 涌泉 Yongquan
Kid-6: 照海 Zhaohai

Chong Mai (Fifth Branch)

Concerned with nourishing postnatal Qi in order to support the generation of Blood. It includes both Sea of Water and Grain points and treats deficiency of Spleen Qi failing to generate Liver Blood.

Sp-4: 公孫 Gongsun
St-30: 氣沖 Qichong
St-36: 足三里 Zusanli
St-37: 上巨虛 Shangjuxu
St-39: 下巨虛 Xiajuxu
St-42: 沖陽 Chongyang

Dai Mai (Draining)

The "Belt" or "Girdle" Vessel is associated with ☵ Kan, Water and straddles the waist acting as a horizontal support for the other vertical vessels. Its pathologies are usually related to accumulation, especially of Dampness and described in the Nan Jing ch. 29 as abdominal fullness and bloated loins as if sitting in water.

The draining branch is concerned with expelling Damp pathogens from the Lower Jiao. Psychologically this may refer to letting go of experiences, especially if they lie behind pathogenic Damp accumulating around the waist or lower Jiao.

GB-41: 足臨泣 Zulinqi
Liv-13: 章門 Zhangmen
GB-26: 帶脈 Daimai
GB-27: 五樞 Wushu
GB-28: 維道 Weidao
Dai Mai (Consolidating)

The consolidating branch of the Dai Mai is used when its supporting function is compromised causing bulging or leakage disorders. In classical descriptions this was the only branch and served draining functions too, the modern pathway being added by later authors.

GB-41: 足臨泣 Zulinqi
Du-4: 命門 Mingmen
Bl-23: 腎俞 Shenshu
Bl-52: 志室 Zhishi
Liv-13: 章門 Zhangmen
GB-26: 帶脈 Daimai
Sp-15: 大横 Daheng
St-25: 天樞 Tianshu
Kid-16: 肓俞 Huangshu
Ren-8: 神闕 Shenque

Yang Wei Mai

The Wei Mai ("Linking Vessels") connect the regular meridians together allowing Qi and Blood to move between them. Their pathology is primarily stagnation but failure of Qi and Blood to move freely can also cause deficiency symptoms beyond the point of blockage. Psychologically they represent difficulty in moving past life experiences. The Nan Jing ch. 29 describes pathology of both vessels at once as a loss of mind with fatigue and weakness.

The Yang Linking Vessel, associated with ☳ Zhen, Thunder, the return of Yang, the arousal of movement from within. Connecting the Yang meridians its obstruction causes Yang Qi to fail to reach the Exterior and protect us from external threats. This is described as physically manifesting in chills and fevers, signs of Exterior invasion. Psychological interpretations suggest an inability to adjust to transitions in life. Its common pairing with with Dai Mai reflects how inability to adjust and defend the exterior results in pathological accumulation internally.

SJ-5: 外關 Waiguan
Bl-63: 金門 Jinmen
GB-35: 陽交 Yangqiao
GB-29: 居髎 Juliao
LI-14: 臂臑 Binao
SJ-13: 臑會 Naohui
SJ-15: 天髎 Tianliao
GB-21: 肩井 Jianjing
SI-10: 臑俞 Naoshu
GB-20: 風池 Fengchi
Du-15: 啞門 Yamen
Du-16: 風府 Fengfu
GB-19: 腦空 Naokong
GB-18: 承靈 Chengling
GB-17: 正營 Zhengying
GB-16: 目窗 Muchuang
GB-15: 頭臨泣 Toulinqi
GB-14: 陽白 Yangbai
GB-13: 本神 Benshen

Yin Wei Mai

The Yin Wei Mai is associated with ☱ Tui and Joy, outward serenity that is bursting with strength within. Connecting the Yin meridians, its pathology tends towards Blood stasis and deficiency with physical or emotional Heart pain and failure to move on from the past. It is often paired with the Chong Mai reflecting their common influence on Blood.

Pc-6: 內關 Neiguan
Kid-9: 築賓 Zhibin
Sp-13: 府舍 Fushe
Sp-15: 大横 Daheng
Sp-16: 腹哀 Fuhai
Liv-14: 期門 Qimen
Ren-22: 天突 Tiantu
Ren-23: 廉泉 Lianquan

Yang Qiao Mai

The Qiao Mai ("Heel" or "Walker" Vessels) are connected with agility and movement of the entire body. The Nan Jing ch. 29 describes their pathologies as tightness along their trajectory with opposing weakness. Scattered references in the Nei Jing add redness and pain of the eyes and seizure disorders. This opposing excess and deficiency can be understood if they are seen as the driving force behind the movement of their associated substances. If the vessel becomes deficient it causes them to stagnate, producing signs of excess along their trajectory.

The Yang Qiao Mai is associated with ☶ Gen, Mountain which represents strength in stillness. Failure to move Yang produces stagnation that generates Heat and Wind causing unwanted movement: muscular tightness and spasms, problems with balance, convulsive seizures, red eyes and insomnia from being unable to switch off from issues in the outside world. It is often paired with the Du Mai reflecting their common influence on Yang.

Bl-62: 申脈 Shenmai
Bl-61: 僕參 Pucan
Bl-59: 跗陽 Fuyang
GB-29: 居髎 Juliao
SI-10: 臑俞 Naoshu
LI-16: 巨骨 Jugu
LI-15: 肩髃 Jianyu
GB-20: 風池 Fengchi
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
St-3: 巨髎 Juliao
St-1: 承泣 Chengqi
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming

Yin Qiao Mai

The Yin Qiao Mai is associated with ☴ Xun, Yin entering Yang providing softness to force that provides the gentle movement of the inner body. Its imbalance causes Yin-type stagnation with lack of movement: internal stagnation such as digestive problems, difficulty swallowing, withdrawal seizures, somnolence, inner eye problems and excessive introspection. Its main points also imply a role in Yin deficiency with Empty Heat rising to the throat and eyes. The mechanism here is still essentially stagnation but due to insufficient movement of Yin upwards to reach the head. It is most often treated with moxa to nourish the deficiency and provide energy to move the Yin. It is often paired with the Ren Mai due to their common influence on the Yin.

Kid-6: 照海 Zhaohai
Kid-2: 然谷 Rangu
Kid-8: 交信 Jiaoxin
Kid-11: 橫骨 Henggu
Kid-12: 大赫 Dahe
Kid-13: 氣穴 Qixue
Kid-14: 四滿 Siman
Kid-15: 中注 Zhongzhu
Kid-16: 肓俞 Huangshu
Kid-17: 商曲 Shangqu
Kid-18: 石關 Shiguan
Kid-19: 陰都 Yindu
Kid-20: 腹通谷 Futonggu
Kid-21: 幽門 Youmen
Kid-22: 步廊 Bulang
Kid-23: 神封 Shenfeng
Kid-24: 靈墟 Lingxu
Kid-25: 神藏 Shencang
Kid-26: 彧中 Yuzhong
Kid-27: 俞府 Shufu
St-12: 缺盆 Qupen
St-9: 人迎 Renying
St-4: 地倉 Dicang
St-3: 巨髎 Juliao
St-1: 承泣 Chengqi
Bl-1: 睛明 Jingming

Reference Notes: (click to display)